Monday, November 28, 2022
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Staged Tourism Vs Inclusive Responsible TVC

Tourism is a profound wealth sharing industry and one among largest embracing with one ninth of labour force in the world, even though today it has been fully devastated due to the impacts of Covid-19 global pandemic. As tourism is underpinned with multidiscipline and integrated multi sectors, it is capable to accommodate anyone and everyone as a guest or a host. Hence, inclusivity is an inherent charisma of tourism industry, wherever it exists. There is no limitation, demarcation or discrimination, when tourism grows naturally among the responsible global citizens. This enables the Tourism Value Chain (TVC) or supply chain to be more and more broader manner to provide plentiful opportunities for people in particular destination and globe. Inclusive tourism value chain which consists with attractions, accessibility, amenities, accommodation, activities and ancillary services would provide opportunity for anyone to become an active actor or agency role. Early days, when tourism began tourists were much focused on experience and comfort whatever available at the place visited away from their home. This was much integrated with authenticity and experience which are primary expectation contemporary responsible tourists also.
However, intervention and growth of modern passenger aircrafts and airline services together with charter operation led the world into conventional mass tourism industry. It was dealt with volume and value based tourism that led to more and more cosmopolitan value laden and price sensitive industry under the competitive pricing philosophy; more for less. Gradually the world was led to stage the tourism through lesser price for more facilities and services regardless of authenticity and inclusivity. Cosmopolitan centred conventional tourism demands anything from any part of the world, where they visit and spend their holiday. This led to dispel genuine actors and authenticity by replacing through staged tourism value chain. Moreover, limited number of actors and agencies began to dominate the TVC while instigating many limitations for local community to take part. This has very badly affected vulnerable communities who are represented from rural and remote regions, women, youth and Persons with Disabilities (PWD).
Emerging trend on authentic and experiential tourism through responsible and inclusive TVC intensifies the participation of genuine and authentic Actors and Agencies. This has attracted a large number of local people in many local destinations to find different opportunities in informal sectors of existing TVC. Inherent limitations of staged conventional tourism are the barrier for formal inclusive tourism growth. Yet, alarming need of sustainability intensifies the responsible TVC that elevates destinations as better places to stay and better place to visit. This would eradicate all the challenges and barriers for inclusive tourism in anticipating needs of sustainable development in any destination.
Since 16th century people started to travel away from their residence and spent more than a day to anticipate their personal, physiological, psychological and sociological needs. This was mainly identified through socio-cultural and spiritual requirements. Since then people started to experience non locality and native environment, culture and services and facilities available at the destinations. Yet, gradual expansion of demand from tourists led the host destination or people to make available all the facilities humanitarian or socio-cultural point of view beyond any economic motive. When the demand for tourism facilities and services were accumulated, host destinations were compelled to charge and provide the continuous services and facilities through the intention of making more comfortable places to visit. As soon as destinations started to provide the facilities and services for a price, tourism fell into a natural market function; price and value of facilities and services determine the demand and the supply.
The market pricing philosophy ‘more for more’ was adapted by the tourism industry to increase more and more facilities and services to enhance the satisfaction of tourists while rising the revenue. More earning through more facilities and services led the suppliers to undergo sever competitions to establish and retain in the market. On the one hand suppliers and destinations were cornered to provide whatever services and facilities demanded by the tourists, on the other hand boundless mounting demands along with unavailability of demanding services and facilities led the destinations and suppliers to duplicate or imitate in destinations to ensure the tourist satisfaction through staged authenticity.
In addition, Western imperialism also commanded more comfort through their native atmosphere and ambiance at the visiting destination. This also led the destinations and host community to be either away from tourism industry or deviate from the authenticity and nativity to satisfy the tourists. Consequently, inclusivity in tourism began to decline and tourism became more or less alien industry in many destinations. Tourism industry led the destinations to occupy only a category of capable people, who are socio-culturally and psychologically adaptable and changeable to retain and continue tourism services and facilities. Tourism was pulled from the nativity and authenticity and pushed into a staged tourism and destinations were transformed into a type of playgrounds for western imperial tourists to enjoy and experience their holiday as they wish.
Ending of the world war II and global economic recession in the world push the tourism into another direction. Passenger airline services were started to remove the limitation of travelling among the people and push them to travel to far away destinations from their native countries. Passenger airlines together with charter operation caused a rapid growth since 1950’s and long-hall destinations became very popular in global travel map. Meanwhile, developing and less developed countries were compelled to adapt the tourism industry as an advocating strategy to overcome their socio-economic challenges. As the declining traditional livelihoods and mounting economic challenges devastated local socio-culture and economy in many developing or under developed nations, tourism was identified and adapted as panacea under modernisation theory and neo-liberalistic approach. This led the destinations to continue their staged tourism industry as per the whims and fancies of Western tourists.
Destinations were cornered to offer stereo type and standard forms of package tourism that refers to psychocentric perception of tourists. However, not all the Western tourists were capable to obey the philosophy of ‘more for more’ as Western imperial tourists. As tourism industry started to carry a large volume of tourism under the concept of mass tourism, this pushed more and more people but with lesser and lesser prices for more services and facilities. Seek lower price with more facilities and services led destinations along with suppliers and service providers to duplicate and staged authenticity in activities, facilities and services to manage within the price paid by the tourists. Subsequently, visitation, active participation and duration of stay at different attraction sites and round tour destinations were controlled by the constraints in price and income from tourists.
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